Reading well is work that is hard requires great skill and training.

Both in the summary additionally the paraphrase we’ve quoted Curtis’s «clustering together in a ball that is dense» a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For people to spell it out this clustering in every language except that Curtis’s could be pointless since her description is admirably precise.

Quoting Authoritative Language

You shall also want to utilize quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting a professional or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to determine background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that given information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you’ve made, along with your statement gets to be more credible to your readers. As an example, in an essay which you might write on the importance of reading well, you might take advantage of a passage from Thoreau’s Walden:

It «is a exercise that is noble» writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, «and something that may task the reader significantly more than any exercise which the customs associated with the day esteem. A training is required by it for instance the athletes underwent. Books must certanly be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.»

By quoting a philosopher that is famous essayist about the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not merely would you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, certainly one of our most influential thinkers that are american. The quotation has elevated the known degree of your projects.

You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who’ve written or spoken about the subject of one’s paper. Listed here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler relates to a physicist and an astronaut:

a couple of scientists – notably James Van Allen, discoverer associated with Earth’s radiation belts – have decried the cost for the space that is manned and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be much more cost-effective.

Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and shuttle that is former, says, «It seems to be argued this one takes away from the other. But before there was clearly a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. Now it’s about $500 million a year»

Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to add remarks created by James Van Allen to the discussion on space flight. When you look at the paragraph that is second Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, both for James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both in order that their qualifications to speak about them are recognized to all:

James Van Allen, discoverer associated with the Earth’s radiation belts .
Joseph Allen, physicist and shuttle astronaut that is former .

The phrases in italics are called appositives. Their function is always to rename the nouns they follow by giving explicit, identifying detail. Any information regarding somebody who may be expressed when you look at the following sentence pattern may be converted to an appositive phrase:

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James Van Allen is the discoverer for the Earth’s radiation belts.

James Van Allen has decried the cost associated with the manned space program

James Van Allen, discoverer for the Earth’s radiation belts, has decried the cost for the manned space program.

Use appositives to identify authors that you quote.

Incorporating Quotations to your Sentences

Quoting Only the right part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need
while you’ve seen, a writer selects passages for quotation which are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative. Now we will put these principles into practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you have run into listed here, published by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of Chicago:

If athleticism is detrimental to students, players, alumni as well as the public, it really is even worse when it comes to colleges and universities themselves. They want to be institutions that are educational however they can not. The storyline associated with famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he had not learned to learn and write is probably exaggerated. But we ought to admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, «friends,» presidents and even professors has tended to relax standards that are academic. These gentry often forget the known fact that a college should not be enthusiastic about a fullback that is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing while the double educational standard cannot exist with no knowledge and the tacit approval, at the very least, of this universities and colleges themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as «faculty representatives» from the college boards that are athletic. 4

Guess that using this paragraph that is entire find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion. You may want to quote part of the sentence that is following

These gentry often disregard the known proven fact that a college shouldn’t be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.

Incorporating the Quotation in to the Flow of your personal Sentence
Once you’ve selected the passage you intend to quote, work the material into the paper in as natural and fluid a way that you can. Here is exactly how we would quote Hutchins:

Robert Hutchins, a president that is former of University of Chicago, asserts that «a college really should not be thinking about a fullback that is a half-wit.»

Observe that we have used an appositive to spot Hutchins. So we’ve used just the part of the paragraph – a single clause – that we thought memorable enough to quote directly.

Avoiding Freestanding Quotations
A quoted sentence should not stand by itself – as with the following example:

Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. «These gentry often disregard the undeniable fact that a college should not be enthusiastic about a fullback that is a half-wit.» But this sorts of thinking is harmful to the university as well as worse for the athletes.

Even you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation. Introduce the quotation by attributing the foundation in some other part of the sentence – beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write:

According to Robert Hutchins, «These gentry often overlook the known undeniable fact that a college should not be enthusiastic about a fullback that is a half-wit.»

«These gentry,» asserts Robert Hutchins, «often overlook the fact that a college really should not be thinking about a fullback that is a half-wit.»

Another alternative is always to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon:

But Robert Hutchins disagrees: «These gentry often forget the known fact that a college should not be enthusiastic about a fullback that is a half-wit.»

Use colons and also to introduce indented quotations (as with the examples above).

When sources that are attributing you will need to vary the conventional «states,» «writes,» «says,» an such like. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: «asserts,» «argues,» «maintains,» «insists,» «asks,» and also «wonders.»

Using Ellipsis Marks quotations that are using made somewhat complicated when you wish to quote the beginning and end of a passage yet not its middle – as was the actual situation once we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here’s the main paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a sentences that are few

to learn well, that is, to learn true books in a spirit that is true is a noble exercise, and one that will task your reader significantly more than any exercise that your customs associated with day esteem. It takes an exercise such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost regarding the expereince of living for this object. Books should be read as deliberately and reservedly because they were written. 5